This article focuses on the types of plagiarism and the ways it is done. Penlighten Staff Last Updated:
You need to know the definition and types of plagiarism so you can avoid it in your writing. You are plagiarizing any time you use text, images, original ideas, or any other unique, creative material without giving credit to the person who created it.
Copying sentences, paragraphs, or whole papers word-for-word, whether from a book, magazine, or website, is plagiarism, except in certain circumstances see part 2, "Tips to Avoid Plagiarism". But there are additional types of plagiarism that you may not even be aware of. This form of plagiarism is extremely easy to commit by copying and pasting text from websites, but it also includes typing in text word-for-word from a printed source such as a book.
Text is copied word-for-word, then certain key words are switched around to disguise the plagiarism. In complex sentencesthere are multiple ways to arrange the clauses. Sentence rearrangement plagiarism is switching the order of clauses in a sentence or paragraph in an attempt to hide the plagiarism.
There are several ways in which ideas can be plagiarized. In metaphor plagiarism, a writer takes a unique, creative metaphor by the original author without giving credit. The original words may not be copied, but the comparison metaphor is reused. The words may be different, but the way the topic is explained and the order in which ideas are listed are the same.
Authors often write about original ideas they have had or original discoveries they have made.
If you repeat one of these original ideas without revealing that another person is the source, you commit idea plagiarism. For example, imagine that a doctor wrote a letter to a medical journal saying that a certain name for a disease is easier for patients to understand than a different, alternative name for that disease.
If a person read this letter and then wrote a paper sharing that same idea, but did not give credit to the original authors of the letter, then that person would have committed idea plagiarism.
Follow these tips to avoid plagiarizing the work of others: Instead, get the information you need from your source, then put it aside.
This practice forces you to use your own words. Other than direct quotes, never, ever copy and paste text directly from a website into your own document.
It can accidentally find its way into your own text. If you use a direct quote, always use quotation marks and then indicate the source. The citation usually takes the form of either an endnote or a short note in parentheses.
The complete citation is found at the end of the paper in a section with a title like "Works Cited" or "References.
If you want to use a section of text from your source that is more than about six words long, you normally must use quotation marks and a citation. For example, it can be considered common knowledge that the United States is a country located in North America.
This is not an original idea, so repeating it is not idea plagiarism. So-called "common phrases" are exceptions to plagiarism guidelines. They are not really original to begin with, so they do not need to be cited.
This situation is most common with technical subjects. For example, in an article about a medication, the phrase "the side effects include nausea and vomiting" cannot easily be reworded.
The source of the information should be cited, but the exact words of a short phrase do not need to be placed into quotations. Long passages, however, should always be placed into quotations and cited, even if they seem to consist only of "common words and phrases. If you are in doubt, always assume they are original and follow the rules to avoid plagiarism.
I recommend this for further reading. I created this example situation based on a real letter to a medical journal: A rapport-enhancing term for delusions of parasitosis.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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Plagiarism is a serious concerns amongst writers, students and teachers alike and thus the need to check for plagiarism is on a high. There are different types of plagiarism and all are serious violations of academic honesty.
We have defined the most common types below and have provided links to examples. Direct Plagiarism Direct plagiarism is the word-for-word transcription of a section of someone else’s work, without attribution and without quotation marks.
The good news about the rules regarding plagiarism is that there are lots of ways to do the right thing.
To follow academic procedures, you'll need to understand several concepts: common knowledge, incorporating sources, and citing sources. What is common knowledge?
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