The quantity and diversity of artistic works during the period do not fit easily into categories for interpretation, but some loose generalizations may be drawn. At the opening of the century, baroque forms were still popular, as they would be at the end. They were partially supplanted, however, by a general lightening in the rococo motifs of the early s.
Newton, Isaac English physicist and mathematician who was born into a poor farming family. Luckily for humanity, Newton was not a good farmer, and was sent to Cambridge to study to become a preacher.
At Cambridge, Newton studied mathematics, being especially strongly influenced by Euclidalthough he was also influenced by Baconian and Cartesian philosophies.
Newton was forced to leave Cambridge when it was closed because of the plague, and it was during this period that he made some of his most significant discoveries. With the reticence he was to show later in life, Newton did not, however, publish his results.
Newton suffered a mental breakdown in and was still recovering through In response to a letter from Hookehe suggested that a particle, if released, would spiral in to the center of the Earth.
Hooke wrote back, claiming that the path would not be a spiral, but an ellipse.
Newton, who hated being bested, then proceeded to work out the mathematics of orbits. Again, he did not publish his calculations. Newton then began devoting his efforts to theological speculation and put the calculations on elliptical motion aside, telling Halley he had lost them Westfallp.
Halleywho had become interested in orbits, finally convinced Newton to expand and publish his calculations. Newton devoted the period from August to spring to this task, and the result became one of the most important and influential works on physics of all times, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophyoften shortened to Principia Mathematica or simply "the Principia.
Book II presented Newton's new scientific philosophy which came to replace Cartesianism. Finally, Book III consisted of applications of his dynamics, including an explanation for tides and a theory of lunar motion.
To test his hypothesis of universal gravitation, Newton wrote Flamsteed to ask if Saturn had been observed to slow down upon passing Jupiter. The surprised Flamsteed replied that an effect had indeed been observed, and it was closely predicted by the calculations Newton had provided.
Newton's equations were further confirmed by observing the shape of the Earth as Newton claimed it should be, rather than prolate spheroidalas claimed by the Cartesians.
Newton's equations also described the motion of Moon by successive approximations, and correctly predicted the return of Halley's Comet.
Newton also correctly formulated and solved the first ever problem in the calculus of variations which involved finding the surface of revolution which would give minimum resistance to flow assuming a specific drag law. Newton invented a scientific method which was truly universal in its scope.
Newton presented his methodology as a set of four rules for scientific reasoning.Free Essay: Discuss the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment along with the subsequent reaction as embodied by the Romantic movement. Give specific. The German Genius: Europe's Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific Revolution, and the Twentieth Century [Peter Watson] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The German Genius is a virtuoso cultural history of German ideas and influence, from to the present day. The Enlightenment was a movement in the 17th and 18th centuries that saw the rise of concepts such as reason, liberty and the scientific method.
The 18th Century proudly referred to itself as the "Age of Enlightenment" and rightfully so, for Europe had dwelled in the dim glow of the Middle Ages when suddenly the lights began to come on in men's minds and humankind moved forward. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah More radical proposals have suggested that the Scientific Revolution might apply to the so-called Enlightenment 'Newtonians' thus extending to roughly Further, as we shall see below, some historians have cut back the earlier period.