The history of Islamic jurisprudence is "customarily divided into eight periods": Several "juristic revival movements" influenced by "exposure to Western legal and technological progress" followed until the midth century CE. In this period, jurists were more concerned with issues of authority and teaching than with theory and methodology.
Clinical learning is an important component of nursing education and takes place in a complex social contact of the clinical environment.
Learning in a clinical setting creates challenges that are absent in a classroom. Convenience sampling technique was utilized to collect data from the participants. There were four focus groups discussions and each had eleven participants.
The data were analysed by content analysis using a thematic framework approach. Focus group discussions revealed that nursing students did experience initial clinical anxiety, stress, lack of teaching and guiding support, lack of organizational support and resources, inadequate clinical supervision, and role acceptance.
The findings highlight the importance of clinical learning in the integration of nursing education and practice. Keywords Botswana; Clinical experiences; Nursing education; Student nurses Introduction One of the main features of nursing both as a science and a profession is integration of theory and practice.
Clinical training is an important component of nursing education. Clinical learning takes place in a complex social context of the clinical environment [ 1 ].
Learning in a clinical setting creates challenges that are absent in a classroom setting. Facilitators have control of the environmental conditions in the classroom whereas in the clinical setting, the teaching and learning are modified according to the situation of the real environment.
The safety of patients that the students are assigned to care for must be maintained [ 2 ]. Clinical experience prepares student nurses to be capable of knowing as well as doing the clinical principles in practice.
Moreover, the clinical practices stimulate students to use their critical thinking skills in problem solving [ 3 ]. Background Nursing education programs in Botswana include a basic higher diploma and post-basic diploma offered in eight Institutes of health sciences of the Ministry of Health.
The basic General Nursing curriculum in operation since was revised in year The revision was recommended based on the findings of the needs assessment that showed that nursing students failed to integrate theory into practice and also lacked inadequate supervision in the clinical area.
The new revised curriculum still poses many challenges to the nursing students as well as the lecturers in coping with the changes in nursing education. Nursing education programmes in the East, South, and Central African countries share a lot of similarities.
The faculty members mostly direct the clinical teaching and evaluation. The ward learning environment has a lot of external stimuli which disadvantages the nursing students with respect to identifying the learning opportunities. Msiska G et al. Clinical nursing education is in essence learning through experience [ 9 ].
The literature review clearly shows that the clinical learning is indeed a challenge for both the student nurses and the lecturer. The challenges are common to both developed and developing countries. Most of the time, the clinical learning at the Institutes of Health Sciences in Botswana is based on the dyadic approach consisting of clinical environment and supervisory relationship between students and the teachers.
This approach warrants a lot of commitment from both the lecturers and students to foster effective learning. Sometimes the student and lecturer ratio ranges from 1: The high acuity and increased number of the patients in the clinical area creates challenges and influences the clinical teaching and learning.
The nursing students prepared at a higher diploma level are expected to be evaluated on more than twenty clinical procedures during their practicum according to their level in nursing programme [ 4 ].
In our research lack of clinical experience, unfamiliar areas, difficult patients, fear of making mistakes and being evaluated by the lecturers were expressed by many student nurses as sources of stress during the clinical rotation. In her capacity as a nurse educator and a researcher, the author observed and often heard nursing students expressing concern that they were not able to perform in the clinical area as expected by the lecturers, and expressed hopelessness and dissatisfaction.
This concern generated a curiosity to investigate the clinical experiences of the nursing students during their clinical placement. No published studies are available on clinical experiences of the nursing students in Botswana. This study was conducted to explore the nature of clinical experience of nursing students prepared at Higher Diploma level in Botswana.
Definition of key Clinical experiences are planned experiences for a specific nursing educational course and experiences gained by the nursing students in hospitals, clinics, health care centres and in the community.
Institute of health sciences is defined as the organization provides training courses for health care workers such as nurses, midwives, pharmacist and dental therapist at higher diploma level in Botswana. Methods Study design A qualitative exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed and Focus Group Discussions FGD was used to collect data.
Study population Level II and level III nursing students were targeted for participation as they had already been exposed to different clinical settings.Level of stress among the nurses working in Intensive care units. Mrs. Manisha N. Pawar, descriptive design was to assess the level of stress among the nurses working in intensive care units in selected hospitals of Navimumbai with a view to develop an challenge for the nursing profession.
Stress also occurs when there is a constant.
Aim: The aim of the research was to explore the nursing students’ opinion and their experiences about their clinical learning. Objectives: • Explore how student nurses find their initial experiences in the clinical area.
• Identify the contributory and hindering factors for effective learning in the clinical area. Yes, I was offered a nursing position in a women’s Drug and Alcohol rehab in to do telephone assessments and medications. The DON offered me this job as I had been working there as a Family Support Worker and she was sick of getting agency staff without any experience.
The Profession of Nursing. Section I of this textbook introduces the begin-ning nursing student to the profession of nursing. The content in this textbook is built on the. Despite lacking absolute clarity, there is a body of research addressing work stress that spans more than 50 years in the nursing profession.
Stress is pervasive in nursing and health care. Moreover, working conditions seem to be deteriorating at the same time that a severe and protracted nursing shortage is occurring. Etymology. The word fiqh is an Arabic term meaning "deep understanding": or "full comprehension".
Technically it refers to the body of Islamic law extracted from detailed Islamic sources (which are studied in the principles of Islamic jurisprudence) and the process of gaining knowledge of Islam through alphabetnyc.com historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God.