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Jackson in Persia Past and Present and Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iranstrongly links the region around Lake Urmia or Urmiya in the northwest of present-day Iran with Zoroastrianism - so much so, that they make Urmia the birthplace of Zoroastrianism.
They also make Zoroastrianism a Persian religion. This contention is understandable since Persia became the centre of the second phase of Zoroastrian history - a phase that could have started in the Lake Urmia region.
In addition, these assertions lend credence to the notion that in this stage of Zoroastrian-Aryan history, Urmia was home to the ancestors of the southern Persians - early Persians who were the bearers of the torch of Zoroastrian heritage.
In other medieval references, Shiz is said to be a centre of ancient Zoroastrianism. Today, Shiz is identified with ruins at Takab, located in the southeast corner of West Azerbaijan province and close to the suggested location of Madai Ak.
Shalmaneser's inscription records that he exacted tribute from twenty-seven 'kings' or chieftains of Parsua. We also gather from the inscriptions that the people of Parsua were organized as loose federations of autonomous districts, each with its own chief.
Different authors locate Parsua to the west or to the south of Lake Urmia. We discuss the possible location below in the section on the Extent of Early Parsua.
Zamua was a confederation of small kingdoms and it was located in the environs of the upper reaches of the Diyala river and present-day Sulaimaniyeh, Iraq.
Ellipi was situated in the valley of the river Saimarrah south of present-day Kermanshah. A natural location for the early Persians to settle would have been around the trade road that was later called the Great Khorasan Road.
Since the early Persian groups may not have been unified at this time, Parsua could have existed in pockets spread over several valleys. We do know that Shalmaneser's inscription states that he exacted tribute from 27 Parsua chieftains or kings and we may be safe to conclude there were at least 27 different Parsua districts later when they did unite, Herodotus mentions ten different Persian groups or 'tribes'.
Of these, the raids from the Assyrians in the east appear to have been the most destructive. The raids were conducted for the purposes of plunder and looting and some of the targets were the central Zagros communities along the trade roads to Babylon and Susa.
The inscriptions catalogue centuries of violent raids and looting of the Persian and Mede settlements by the Assyrians. For instance, one Assyrian inscription states that Shalmaneser's successor, King Shamsi-Adad BCE destroyed 1, towns or settlements in Parsua in the region of present day Kermanshah.
He also conducted raids further east into Median lands. His armies crossed the Kullar mountains the main Zagros range and entered Messi on the upper reaches of the River Jagatu, where they captured a large quantity of cattle, sheep and a number of two-humped Bactrian camels.
The capture of Bactrian camels is very significant as they were widely used by Aryan traders. Sargon's raid on Parsuash and Media in BCE resulted in his demise - a death Sargon's son and successor, Sennacherib chose to interpret as divine punishment. The inference is confirmed by the number of prisoners and the thousands of horses, cattle and sheep that were captured.
The Assyrians would plunder, denude and destroy entire settlements. The desire to live in peace and security and therefore the need for the early Persians to distance themselves from continued raids by the Assyrians and other predatory groups, could have motivated them to continue moving south and then east, thereby placing Elam and other kingdoms as buffers them and the Assyrians.
Preserving trade could have been an added incentive.
It has been suggested by other authors cf. If so, new and safer trade routes to Susa via the lower Zagros could have prompted the Aryan trading communities to move south to the trade centres on the new trade route.The Histories also stands as one of the first accounts of the rise of the Persian Empire, as well as the events and causes of the Greco-Persian Wars between the Achaemenid Empire and the Greek city-states in the 5th century BC.
Ancient Greek civilization, the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended about bce, to the death of Alexander the Great, in alphabetnyc.com was a period of political, philosophical, artistic, and scientific achievements that formed a legacy with unparalleled influence on Western civilization.
Ancient History and Culture. The Roman Empire and Qing Dynasty are now only ruins, but there’s far more to discover about the ancient world. Explore classical history, mythology, language and literature, and learn more about the many fascinating figures of the ancient world.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in BC i[›] and lasted until BC.
The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in BC.
The history is told in great part by Herodotus, a Greek historian, considered to write historical bias in regards to Greek & Persian history. Herodotus was said to investigate the Persian war, going through different lands and collecting personal inquiries, myths, legends and accounts of the Persian Wars.
Persian Wars (Greco-Persian Wars) Persia.
Greece. Powerful Army. Herodotus- Famous Greek Historian who wrote about the Persians Wars. Also known as the “Father of History” Persian Wars Introduction Last modified by: Christopher Sidler.