Visit Website Did you know? At the Palace of Versailles, aristocrats were expected to compete for the privilege of watching Louis XIV wake up, eat meals and prepare for bed. Beginning intheir discontent erupted into a civil war known as the Fronde, which forced the royal family to flee Paris and instilled a lifelong fear of rebellion in the young king.
Years of feudal oppression and fiscal mismanagement contributed to a French society that was ripe for revolt.
Noting a downward economic spiral in the late s, King Louis XVI brought in a number of financial advisors to review the weakened French treasury. Each advisor reached the same conclusion—that France needed a radical change in the way it taxed the public—and each advisor was, in turn, kicked out.
Finally, the king realized that this taxation problem really did need to be addressed, so he appointed a new controller general of finance, Charles de Calonne, in Calonne suggested that, among other things, France begin taxing the previously exempt nobility. The nobility refused, even after Calonne pleaded with them during the Assembly of Notables in Financial ruin thus seemed imminent.
The Estates-General In a final act of desperation, Louis XVI decided in to convene the Estates-General, an ancient assembly consisting of three different estates that each represented a portion of the French population.
If the Estates-General could agree on a tax solution, it would be implemented. However, since two of the three estates—the clergy and the nobility—were tax-exempt, the attainment of any such solution was unlikely. Moreover, the outdated rules of order for the Estates-General gave each estate a single vote, despite the fact that the Third Estate—consisting of the general French public—was many times larger than either of the first two.
Feuds quickly broke out over this disparity and would prove to be irreconcilable. Realizing that its numbers gave it an automatic advantage, the Third Estate declared itself the sovereign National Assembly.
Within days of the announcement, many members of the other two estates had switched allegiances over to this revolutionary new assembly. The Bastille and the Great Fear Shortly after the National Assembly formed, its members took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing that they would not relent in their efforts until a new constitution had been agreed upon.
In the countryside, peasants and farmers revolted against their feudal contracts by attacking the manors and estates of their landlords.
Shortly thereafter, the assembly released the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which established a proper judicial code and the autonomy of the French people. Rifts in the Assembly Though the National Assembly did succeed in drafting a constitution, the relative peace of the moment was short-lived.
A rift slowly grew between the radical and moderate assembly members, while the common laborers and workers began to feel overlooked. When Louis XVI was caught in a foiled escape plot, the assembly became especially divided.
The moderate Girondins took a stance in favor of retaining the constitutional monarchy, while the radical Jacobins wanted the king completely out of the picture.
French leaders interpreted the declaration as hostile, so the Girondin-led assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia.
Despite the creation of the Committee of Public Safety, the war with Austria and Prussia went poorly for France, and foreign forces pressed on into French territory. Enraged citizens overthrew the Girondin-led National Convention, and the Jacobins, led by Maximilien Robespierre, took control.
Backed by the newly approved Constitution ofRobespierre and the Committee of Public Safety began conscripting French soldiers and implementing laws to stabilize the economy.King Louis XVI was the last French monarch. In this lesson, learn about his early life, his marriage to Marie Antoinette, and his reign over France.
The Reign of Louis the XVI There is great mystery surrounding the death of Louis XVI. Many different events led up to this. His actions before, during, and after the French Revolution greatly affected his fate.
Aside from the debt issues plaguing France in the years prior to the French Revolution, there was also the issue of provincial corruption which had a devastating effect on the financial situation of the already floundering French economy.
This history extended essay seeks to address the following question: To what extent were the French governmental policies responsible for ig. Feb 22, · Watch video · Louis XVI was the last king of France (–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of He was executed for treason by guillotine in Born: Aug 23, Julian Browning specializes in the sale of autograph letters, historical documents and manuscripts dating from about to All historical autographs, letters and documents are researched and authenticated with care, described accurately, and priced fairly.