He explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics. The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries.
Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania sided with the fascist Axis powers of their own volition. The war ruined agricultural production in these countries: The fascist troops plundered the economies of the countries they invaded. Yugoslavia was divided up by Germany in Hungary got part of it, Italy part and Germany the rest.
The damages suffered by Yugoslavia amounted to 50 times its annual national income. The war was also extremely costly in terms of human lives.
There were mass mobilizations everywhere.
Some of the biggest of the terrible slaughters of entire populations, including those of Jews, occurred in Eastern Europe. They participated in national anti-fascist coalitions with peasant and social-democratic parties, as well as with parties representing the big bourgeoisie.
Rumania, Hungary and Bulgaria had been on the losing side; as a result, they were under the surveillance of an Allied Control Commission.
The first job they set themselves was to rebuild the countries destroyed by the war. In Albania and Yugoslavia, where the communist parties were the only political forces that had not been discredited in the eyes of the masses, they were in sole control of the government.
In all the other countries, power was in the hands of coalitions of the parties that had belonged to the anti-fascist front. The first policies implemented by these governments invariably reflected the fact that they were alliances of various different social classes, and strata.
For instance, parliamentary forms of government were maintained. There was agreement on repressing enemies, traitors and war criminals. Borders were redrawn and most of these countries sent the German minorities in their populations back to Germany.
Land reform was carried out gradually, through a series of laws. In industry, governments limited themselves to consficating the capital of enemies or collaborators and nationalizing a few basic industries. In other sectors, a policy of limiting big business was followed.
Nationalizations were more wide-ranging in countries where the economy was dominated by foreign capital. There was also substantial nationalization in Czechoslovakia.Latest News; Request a free trial of: Gas Daily.
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The Origins of the Cold War, – (3 Lessons) Tools. Share. The Unit. which features a set of Document Analysis Worksheets. The Lessons. Lesson 1: Sources of Discord, – The unwillingness of the Soviet Union to allow the creation of independent and democratic states in Eastern Europe, and the failure of East and .
TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: EXPERIENCES OF A MODEL COUNTRY - HUNGARY Again, in the period following World War II, Central-Eastern European societies Transition to Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe: Experiences of a Model Country - Hungary.
This equation between support for democratic groups overseas and US national security was not new, however; instead, the idea originated during the final stages of the Cold War, when a loose network of American intellectuals persuaded the Reagan administration to support the foundation of the National Endowment for Democracy.
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