Studies show that it can increase muscle massstrength and exercise performance 12. Additionally, it provides a number of other health benefits, such as protecting against neurological disease 3456. Many people believe that creatine is unsafe and has lots of side effects, but these are not supported by evidence 78.
Biological relevance[ edit ] Serum creatinine a blood measurement is an important indicator of renal health because it is an easily measured byproduct of muscle metabolism that is excreted unchanged by the kidneys.
Creatinine itself is produced  via a biological system involving creatinephosphocreatine also known as creatine phosphateand adenosine triphosphate ATP, the body's immediate energy supply. Creatine is synthesized primarily in the liver from the methylation of glycocyamine guanidino acetate, synthesized in the kidney from the amino acids arginine and glycine by S-adenosyl methionine.
It is then transported through blood to the other organs, muscle, and brain, where, through phosphorylationit becomes the high-energy compound phosphocreatine. Little or no tubular reabsorption of creatinine occurs.
If the filtration in the kidney is deficient, creatinine blood levels rise. Therefore, creatinine levels in blood and urine may be used to calculate the creatinine clearance CrClwhich correlates approximately with the glomerular filtration rate GFR.
The GFR is clinically important because it is a measurement of renal function. However, in cases of severe renal dysfunction, the CrCl rate will overestimate the GFR because hypersecretion of creatinine by the proximal tubules will account for a larger fraction of the total creatinine cleared.
In the absence of secretion, creatinine behaves like inulin. An alternate estimation of renal function can be made when interpreting the blood plasma concentration of creatinine along with that of urea.
BUN-to-creatinine ratio the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine can indicate other problems besides those intrinsic to the kidney; for example, a urea level raised out of proportion to the creatinine may indicate a prerenal problem such as volume depletion.
The mechanism by which creatinine kills bacteria is not presently known. A recent report also suggests that creatinine may have immunosuppressive properties. Elevated creatinine is not always representative of a true reduction in GFR.
A high reading may be due to increased production of creatinine not due to decreased kidney function, to interference with the assay, or to decreased tubular secretion of creatinine.
An increase in serum creatinine can be due to increased ingestion of cooked meat which contains creatinine converted from creatine by the heat from cooking or excessive intake of protein and creatine supplements, taken to enhance athletic performance. Intense exercise can increase creatinine by increasing muscle breakdown.
Dehydration secondary to an inflammatory process with fever may cause a false increase in creatinine levels not related to an actual kidney injury, as in some cases with cholecystitis.
Creatinine secretion by the tubules can be blocked by some medications, again increasing measured creatinine.
Therefore, this test is unsuitable for detecting early-stage kidney disease. A better estimation of kidney function is given by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFR. Algorithms to estimate GFR from creatinine level and other parameters are discussed in the renal function article.
A concern as of late relates to the adoption of a new analytical methodology, and a possible impact this may have in clinical medicine.
Most clinical laboratories now align their creatinine measurements against a new standardized isotope dilution mass spectrometry IDMS method to measure serum creatinine.
IDMS appears to give lower values than older methods when the serum creatinine values are relatively low, for example 0. The IDMS method would result in a comparative overestimation of the corresponding calculated GFR in some patients with normal renal function.May 26, · Phosphocreatine is known as its quickest form of regeneration, by means of the enzyme creatine kinase.
Thus, the primary function of this system is to act as a temporal energy buffer. Nevertheless, over the years, several other functions were attributed to phosphocreatine. similarities between germ-free mice and ketogenic dieters.
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